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  Padartha Vigyan - I :-

Pada: “Padamcha varna samuham” - Group of letters

           “ Shaktam padam” - Which has capacity to tell the meaning.

Paribhasha: “ Shaktah saabhiprayo varno varnasamooh va padam” - Group of letters having the capacity to tell the meaning is called 'Pada'.

 

Padartha: “ Padyate gamyate yenarthah sa padarthah” the media through which meaning of a word is understood is called padartha.

Lakshana: “ Padasya padyoh padanam va arthah sa padarthah” - meaning of one two or many words is called padartha.

“ Pramiti vishayah padarthah”- The subject of knowledge is padartha.

“ Shannamapi padarthanam asthitva abhideyatva jneyatwani” - 6 padarthas have existance, name and knowledge.

Padartha swarupa: 1. Sat (Bhava Padartha)- which has existence 2. Asat (Abhava)- which has non existance.

Modern: Solid, Liquid, Gas.

Pada – Padartha sambandha: 1. Tadatmya sambandha 2. Vachya vachaka sambandha 3. Sanketa roopa samavaya 4. Lakshanatmaka sambamndha 5. Vyanjanatmaka Sambandha 6. Tatparya rupa sambandha.

Classification:

A) Acc to charak: 1. Sat 2. Asat

B) Acc. To Sushrut: Infinite.

C)           Acc. Vaisheshik: (6)- Dravya, Guna, Karma, Samanya, Vishesha, Samavaya.

D) Acc. To Karikavali: (2)- Bhava, Abhava

   E) Acc. To Sankhya : 25 – 16 Vikara, 8 Prakruti, Purusha.

   F) Acc.  To Yoga: 26 – 25 as above + Ishwar

   G) Acc to Vedanta : 2- Atma rupa, Anatma rupa

  H) Acc. To Mimansa : 8- Dravya, Guna, Karma, Samanya, Para tantrata, Shakti, Sadrushya, Sankhya.

  I) Acc. To Ayurveda: 6- Dravya, Guna, Karma, Samanya, Vishesha, Samavaya

  J) Acc. To Nyaya: 16: Pramana, Prameya, Samshaya, Prayojana, Drishtanta, Siddanta, avayava, Tarka, Nirnaya, Vada, Jalpa, Vitanda, Hetvabhas, Chala, Jati, Nigraha sthana.

Padartha Sadharmya: All 6 padarthas have Asthitva, Jneyatva & abhideyatva. All 6 padarthas have anekata & samavayata in common. Nirgunatva & Nishkriyatva exists in guna, karma, samany, vishesha and samavaya. Dravya, guna, karma have sambandha & samanya, vishesha have dharmadharma kartatva sadharmya.

 

Padartha Vaidharmya: Guna and karma exists in Dravya but not vice versa. There is difference in padartha samkhya like guna – 41, Karma – 5 and dravya – 9.

 

Padartha Lakshana Dosha: 3: Avyapti, Ati vyapti, Asambhava.

 

2. Dravya Vigyaniyam

 

Definition: dhru+yat = Dravya – Dravya can be defined as the padartha which

liquifies (Dravati), flows (Gati) and undergoes changes throgh union and division.

 

Lakshana:  

1. The substance in which Guna and Karma resides with inseperable relation

2. Guna and karma are known as Ashrayee of Dravya and Dravya is Ashraya for guna and karma.

3. The substance which attains change is dravya

4. Dravya possesses kriya and guna with samavayi karana.

 

Classification:

As per Karya – Karana : 2 – Karya dravaya and Karana dravya

As per origin: 3 – Jangama, Bhauma, Audbhida

As per usage: 2 – Aushadha, Ahara

As per Taste: 6 – Madhura skanda, Amla skanda, Lavana Skanda, Katu Skanda, Tikta Skanda, Kashaya Skanda

As per effect: 3 – Dosha Shamaka, Dhatu Shamaka, Swasthya karaka.

 

Karya Dravya: Which take part in the formation of body.

Types: Chetana and Achetana

 

Chetana Dravya: Which is having Indriya, and Life ex: Humans, Animals etc.

 

Achetana Dravya: Which doesn't have indriya and life. Ex: wood, stone etc.

Chetana dravyas (2) – Antaschetana and Bahirantaschetana

 

Antaschetana or Sthavara: These can feel internal feelings such as sukha dukha etc but cannot express and also cannot oppose the attack. Ex: Plants

Types: Vanaspati (which give fruits without flower) Vanaspatya (which gives fruit after flowering) Virudha (Creepers) Aushadhi (reproduction once in life time)

 

Bahirantasschetana or Jangama: Feelings or consciousness is felt external and internal level

Types: Jarayuja (Origin from placenta), Andaja (Origin from egg), Swedaja (origin from sweat), Audbhija ( origin from earth)

 

Achetana: Khanija and kritrima

 

Karana Dravya: Responsible for the production of innumerable karya dravyas.

Types: 9 – Akasha, Vayu, Teja, Jala, Pruthvi, Atma, Mana, Dik, Kala.

Among these Vayu, Teja, Jala, Pruthvi are anitya (Temporary) in karya roopa. Others are nitya (Permanant). These are responsible for production of Moorta and Amoorta dravya of universe. Pancha mahabhoota give physical body, Atma gives chetana, Mana gives activating capacity, Kala and Dik are responsible for transformation. 

Tamas as 10th Karana dravya: Meemansakara and Vedanta darshana accepted it as dravya but Nyaya and Vaisheshika have not accepted. Tamas conatins Neela Krishan varna (Guna) and Gati (Karma) hence it is a dravya.

But Ayurveda as of Nyaya and Vaisheshika doesn't accept it because it doesn't have dravyatwa, no adhistana, no independent existence. It has anitya utpatti and Nasha. Guna and Karma of tamas are not real, objects are not visualised in darkness. It is abhava of Tejas or Prakasha.

 

Pancha Mahabhutas:

 

Prithvi

Jala

Tejas

Vayu

Akasha

Utpatti

From Jala

From Tejas

From Vayu

From Akasha

From Atma

Property

Tamo bahula

Satwa Tamo bahula

Satwa bahula

Rajo bahula

Satwa bahula

Classification

1. Nitya 2. Anitya( Shariira Sanjnaka, Indriya Sanjnaka, Vishaya Sanjnaka)

Sharira Snajnaka

1. Yonija (Jarayuja, Andaja)           2. Ayonija (Swedaja, Audbhija)

Ayonija (residesin Varuna loka)

Present in Aditya Loka

Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samana

 

Indriya Sanjnaka

Ghranendriya

Rasanendriya

Chakshurendriya

Sparshanendriya

Shrotrendriya

Vishaya Sanjnaka

 

1. Amba,              2. Mareecha,       3. Mara,           4. Apa

1. Bhouma          2. Divya            3. Udarya            4. Akaraja

 

All types of Shabda

Gunas

14

14

11

9

6

Samanya Gunas

Sankhya, Parinama, Prithakatwa, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Paratwa, Aparatwa, Samskar, Dravatwa, Gurutwa

Sankhya, Parinama, Prithakatwa, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Paratwa, Aparatwa, Samskar, Dravatwa, Gurutwa

Sankhya, Parinama, Prithakatwa, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Paratwa, Aparatwa, Samskar, Dravatwa

Sankhya, Parinama, Prithakatwa, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Paratwa, Aparatwa, Samskar

Sankhya, Parinama, Prithakatwa, Samyoga, Vibhaga

Vishesha Guna

Gandha, Roopa, Rasa, Sparsha

Roopa, Rasa, Sparsha, Snehatwa

Roopa. Sparsha

Sparsha

Shabda

Swaroopa

Varna: Many coloursRasa: all 6 Rasas

Gandha: 2 types

Sparsha: Anushna Sheeta

Varna: Shukla

Rasa: madhura

Sparsha: Sheetala

Dravatva: Sansiddika

Varna: Shukla

Sparsha: Ushana

Dravatwa: Naimittika

 

 

Bhava

Gandha, Ghranendriya, Gourava, Sthairya, Murtitva

Sneha, Kleda, Mardava

Roopa, Darshana, Prakasha, Paka, Ushnata

Sparsha, Sparshanendriya, Rookshata, Indriya prerana, Dhatu sancharana

Shabda, Srotrendriya, Laghu, Sookshma, Viveka

 
Shat Rasa – Mahabhutas:
Madhura: Pruthvi + Jala
Amla      : Agni + Pruthvi
Lavana  : Jala + Tejas
Katu      : Agni + Vayu
Tikta     : Vayu + Akasha
Kashaya: Vayu + Prithvi
 
Panchikaran or Mahabhuta parasparanupravesha:
Mahabhoototpatti starts from Akash and previous bhutas, so all gunas are also carried & associated with uttara bhuta. It is known as bhutanupravesha.
Sarva dravya panchabhutikatwam, hence pradhana guna will be 50% and rest 4 bhutas present each 12.5%.
 
Mahabhuta – Guna:
Akasha: Shabda only
Vayu   : Shabda – Sparsha
Teja    : Shabda- Sparsha- Roopa
Jala     : Shabda- Sparsha- Roopa- Rasa
Prithvi: Shabda- Sparsha- Roopa- Rasa – Gandha
 
Kala: Kala is also Amruta as Akasha, It is unique, eternal and exists everywhere.
Kala Shabda Utpatti: Ka (kara)+li(dhatu)= Kala
Lakshana:
“Janyanam janakaha Kalo jagatam ashrayo mataha” - The one which is producer and shelter for all the matters of universe”
“ Sankalayathi kalayati va bhutani it kalah” - produces and compiles creatures
“ Kala punaha parinamamuchyate” - main cause behind change or transformation.
Guna:(5)- Sankhya, Parinama, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Prithakatwa
Kala Bheda: Acc. To Charaka: 2- Samvatsaradi and Avasthiki
15 Akshi nimesha      – 1 Kashta
30 Kashta                - 1 Kala
20. 1Kala                 - 1 Muhurta
30 Muhurta              - 1 Aharnishi
15 Aharnishi             - 1 Paksha
2 Paksha                 - 1 Masa
12 Masa                  - 1 Samvatsara
2 Masa                             - 1 Rutu
3 Rutu                    - 1 Ayana
2 Ayana                  - 1 Varsha
5 Varsha                 - 1 Yuga
 
Importance of Kala in Ayurveda:
1.                  Dinacharya, rutucharya depends on kala
2.                  Doshadi sanachaya depends on kala
3.                  Aushadha sevana depends on kala
4.                  Vanoushadi samgrahana and samrakshana depends on kala
5.                  Vibhinna roga kala
6.                  Roga sadhyasadhyata depends on kala
 
Atma:”Ata satatya gamane” – means constantly moving.
Atma should consist of following characteristics-  Apnoti (existing in all padarthas), adatte (considering all padartha  under its own swarupa), Atti vishayani (enjoying subjects of enjoyment) and Santata bhava (never lasting existence).
Gunas: (14) : Sparsha, Sankhya, Primana, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Prithakatwa, Para tatwa, Apara tatwa, Vega, Buddhi, Sukha, Dukha, Iccha, Dwesha.
Lakshanas:”Jnanadi karanam Atma” – Shelter of knowledge is atma
‘ Atma jna’ – who knows everything.
‘Atmatwabhi sambhavan atma’ – having intimate relationship with atmatwa jati.
Atma is the seat for Indriyadi Karana and is Karta.                 
Types:
1.      Acc. To Tarka Samgraha – Jeevatma, Paramatma
2.      Acc. To Kanada – Jeeva, Ishwar
3.      Purusha Panchaka- Bhutatma, Indriyatma, Pradhanatma, Jeevatma, Paramatma.
4.      Acc. To Ayurveda – Shuddha purusha (chetana), Ashuddha Purusha
5.      Acc. To Nyaya Darshana – Jeevatma, Ishwar
6.      Paramatma, Sukshma sharer yukta atma, Sthoola chetana yukta sharer (Karma purusha)
Paramatma:
‘ Tatreshwar sarvajnaha paramatma ek eva sukha dukhadi rahitah’
Ishwar is the supreme soul who knows everything. He is the only one & is free from sukha dukhadi vikaras.
‘Prabhavo na hayanaditwat abhidiyate paramatmanah’ – He doesn’t have any cause & beginning.
Sukshma Shareerayukta Atma:
This is the invisible form of jeevatma. It has only 17 factors acc. To Sankhya darshana and 18 acc to Sankhya Karika.
17 tatwa’s are buddhi, ekadasha indriya & Karika pancha tanmatra.
18th tatwa: Ahamkara.
This subtle shareera is the karana behind production of karma purusha and exists from beginning of creation up to pralaya.
Its transmigration from one body to another is called as Dehantargamana.
Purusha:
‘Purnatwat purusha’ – Purush is the one exists in complete universe.
‘Chetanadhaturapyeka smrutaha purusha sanjnaka’- Chetana dhatu alone is also known as Purusha.
Types: 1. Shuddha purusha 2. Ashuddha purusha (8)
1.      Dwi dhatvatmaka purusha – Shareer, Atma
2.      Tri dhatvatmaka purusha – Tridoshatmaka purusha
3.      Pancha dhatmatvaka purusha – Pancha mahabhutas
4.      Shad dhatwtmak purush – Pancha bhutas, Atma
5.      Trayodasha dhatvatmaka – 3 dosha+7 dhatu+ 3 Mala
6.      Saptadasha dhatvatmaka – 10 indriya+ 5 bhutas+Mana+ Atma
7.      Chturvimshati dhatvatmak – Mana, 10 indriya + 5 indriya+ 8 Prakruti
8.      Pancha vimshati Dhatvatmaka- All above + Atma
Rashi Purusha: It’s a group of several factors. 24 tatwatmak purusha cantaining buddhi. Indriiya, Manas, Artha etc.
Samyoga Purusha:Formed by union of tatvas. It exists when Raja and tama are predominant. It becomes a free individual when satva increases and Raja and tama decreases.
Karma purusha:’Karma swadhikrihata purusha karmapurusha’ – The purusha who undergoes and performs karma is called as karma purusha. He is Chikitsadikrita purusha.
Atma sthan: Hridaya is the seat of atma by sushruta.
Atma utpatti:Paramatma is Anadi, but Jeevatma is produced due to karmaphala earned by actions performed acc to moha, iccha & dwesha.
 
Manas:
Def: ‘ Manyate jneyaate anena iti manaha’ – That through which knowledge is perceived is called mana. It is responsible for manana karma.
Syn: Chitta, Chetana, Hrid, Manas, Satva.
Lakshana:
‘ Sukha dukhadyupalabdhi sadhanam indriyam manaha’ -  Through which sukha dukha etc can be perceived.
‘ Lakshanam mmanaso jnanasyabhavo bhava  eva cha’ – Presence or absence of jnana is lakshana of mana.
‘ Mano vyakaranakmakam’ – By which descriptive knowledge is perceived is mana.
Guna: ‘1. Anutwa 2. Ekatwa.
Due to  anutva guna manas is capable of changing subjects frequently.
Due to ekatwa guna, it is capable of perceiving only one vishaya at one time.
Nyayas: 1. Shatapatra suchi nyaya 2. Alata chakra Nyaya 3. Deergha shashkuli nyaya
Trigunas:Satwa, Rajas, Tamas
8 gunas : Sankhya, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Parimana, Prithakatwa, Paratwa, Aparatwa, Vega
Manovishaya:Chintya, Vicharya, Oohya, Dhyeya, Sankalpya
Mano Karma: Indriyabhigraha, Mano nigraha, Ooha, vichara
Mano vritti:Krodha, Shoka, Bhaya, Vishada, irshya, Abhyasa, Dainya, Matsarya, Kama, Lobha
Mana swaroopa:Anu, Atindriya, Ubhayendriya, Connecting Atma & indriya, Ahankarika, Bhoutika
Mana adhisthan: Acc. To Charak: Hriday, Acc. To Bhela :Mastishka, others :sarva shareera
Types: A) Satwa, Rajas, Tamas
B) Antar mana- Bahir mana
C) Acc. To karya karana (Yoga vasishta) – Jagruta, Swapna, Sushupti
 
Disha:
Dravya by which nearness or farness is understood is called as Disha.
Syn: Dik, Disha, Kakubha, Kasta, Harita etc.
Lakshana: It is the cause behind the business of purva, paschima etc. It is unique omnipresent (exists everywhere) and eternal. It is proved through daishika paratwa and aparatwa.
Guna: Sankhya, prithakatwa, Parimana, Samyoga, Vibhaga.
Types: 4 types: Purva, Paschima, Uttara and Dakshina
6 types: Above + Urdhva and Adha
8 types: Purva, Paschima, Uttara and Dakshina, Agneya, Nairutya, Vayuvya, Eshanya
10 Types: Above + Urdhva and Adha
 
 
 3. Guna Vigyaniyam
 
Nirukti: “ Guna amantrane”- By which people attracted towards it there by towards dravya is called Guna
Lakshana: Guna reside in dravya with samavaya sambandha and is different from Karma. It is Nirguna, Nischetana and cause for samyoga and vibhaga.
Types:
Acc. To Karikavali: 5: Moorta Guna, Amoorta Guna, Moortamoorta Guna, Anekashrita guna, Eka vritti guna.
Acc. To Charak (41): Sartha Guna (5), Gurvadi guna (20) Buddhi Praytnadi guna (6), Paradi guna (10)
Adhyatma guna: (6) – Sukha, Dukha, Iccha, Dwesha, Prayatna, Buddhi
Buddhi – Smruti, Chetana, Dhruti, Ahankara
Gurvadi guna: (Sharirika Guna):
Acc to Charak (20): Guru-Laghu, Sheeta- Ushna, Snigdha-Ruksha, Manda – Teekshna, Sthira-Sara, Mrudu-Kathina, Visada-Picchila, Slakshna-Khara, Sthoola-Sookshma, Sandra- drava
Acc to Nagarjuna (10)- Sheeta- Ushna, Snigdha-rooksha, Visad- Pichila, Guru-Laghu, Mrudu-Teekshna. First 8 gunas excpet Mrudud and Teekshna are considered as Veerya also.
Acc. to Sushruta: extra gunas- Vyavayi, Vikashi, Sugandha, Durgandha, Ashukari
Paradi gunas:(10)- Para, Apara, Yukti, Sankhya, Samyoga, Vibhaga, Prithakatwa, Parimana, Samskara, Abhyasa.
Vishishta gunas: 5- Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa, Gandha
Guru: The one which causes Bruhmana. Jala and prithvi adhikya, Responsible for Patana karma.
Actions: Sada, Upalepa, Tarpana, Bruhmana, Bala karaka, Vata hara and Kapha karak
Laghu: Which causes langhana. Causes lekhana, Ropana, Kapha nashaka, Vata karaka, Shighra paki and is best pathya.
Sheeta: It does sthambana, Trush, Pitta and Daha nashaka, Alhada kara, Jala bhutadhikya, Vata kapha karaka, Pitta hara.
Ushna: Agni bhutadhikya, Sheeta nashaka, Sweda janaka, Deepaka, Pachaka, Murcha, Trusha and Daha karaka, Vata kapha hara, Pitta karaka.
Teekshna:  Agnibhutadhikya, Causes shodhana, fast acting, Pittakara, Kapha vata hara, Daha, Paka, Lekhana and Srava Kara.
Manda: Slow acting, does shamana of doshas, Kapha kara, Pitta hara, Prithvi and Jala bhutadhikya
Sthira: Does dharana, Vata and mala sthambhana, Prithvi bhutadhikya, kapha kara.
Sara: Gives prerana to Vata and Mala, Vata kara.
Mrudu: Brings shithilata in deha, Kapha kara, Vata, Pitta hara, Jala and Akasha bhutadhikya.
Kathina: Gives dridhata, Vata kara, Prithvi bhutadhikya.
Visada: Does Kshalana in deha, Vata vardhaka, Lekhana, Vruna ropana, Prithvi, Akasha, Teja, Vayu bhutadhikya.
Picchila:Does lepana karma, Kapha kara, Balya, Jeevaniya, Jala bhuthadhikya, Tantula, Sandhana karaka
Snigdha: Causes snigdhata, Mardavata, kledata, Vata hara, kapha karaka, increases dhatu, bala, varna, Jalabhutadhikya.
Rooksha:Causes Shoshana, Vata vriddhikara, Kapha hara, Sthambhaka.
Shlakshna: Smooth to touch, does Ropana, Kapha kara, Charak: Akasha bhutadhikya, Nagarjuna: Agni bhtadhikya, Sushruta: Jala bhutadhikya.
Khara: Vatakara, Dhatu hrasa kara,  Vayu bhutadhikya
Sookshma: Does vivarana, enters all sukshma srotas and keeps them open, Agni, vayu, Akasha bhutadhikya.
Sthoola: Does samvarana, sthoulya kara, srotorodhakara, Prithvi bahuladhikya
Drava:Kledakara, does vilodhana, Jala bhutadhikya
Sandra: Does prasadana, bandha karaka, dhatu vridhi kara.
Vyavayi: First gets absorbed without getting digested. Spreads all over body. After spreading get digested. Vayu akasha bhutadhikya
Vikashi: First spreads all over body, separates oja and dhatu, causes shithilata of sandhi.
Sugandha: Sukha kara, Ruchi kara, Sukshma, Mrudu.
Durgandha: causes Hrullas, Aruchi
Ashukari:Spreads in the body very fastly.
 
Para: Means pradhanata, which is best in the class.
Apara:Which is least importance.
Yukti:Proper planning is Yukti. It is very important from treatment of view.
Sankhya: Numbers are important for calculation, counting etc.
Samyoga: Sambamndha of one dravya with another is called Samyoga.
Types:
Dwandwa karmaja: If 2 dravya are present in samyoga & both are equally active.
Sarva karmaja: If more than 2 dravya are present in samyoga & all are active.
Eka karmaja: In this type of samyoga only one way action is taking place.
Vibhaga: Separating a dravya from a group of dravya is Vibhaga.
Vibhakti: Making small fragments of one dravya.
Viyoga: When 2 or more dravya separate from their union.
Bhagaso graha: Grouping of dravyas ex Ahara varga as shaka varga, Shami dhanya..
Prithakatva: A specific character which separates it from rest dravya is called Prithakatva.
Asamyoga: When samyoga can never happen it is Asamyoga
Vailakshana: The two specific gunas of two separate dravyas
Aneka: Uniqueness in its own calss by which it is identified.
Parimana:Guna responsible for measurement of weights and heights.
Dairghya mana: To measure length and height
Gurutva mana: To measure weights.
Samskara: By which character of a dravya changes is called Samskara.
Abhyasa: Satata kriya is Abhyas.
 
Guna pradhanyata:
1. Rasabhibhava: Guna stronger than rasa.
2.  Rasanugraha: Rasa karma depends on Vipaka and Vipaka depends on Guna
3.  Sankhya bahulya
4.  Prayoga Bahulya
5.  Karma Bahulya
6. Vishaya Bahulya
7. Upadesha: it has been explained in all arsha granthas.
8. Apadesha: Dravya is identified with guna only.
9. Anumana: By guna, Karma can be guessed.
 
4. Karma Vigyaniyam
 Def: Kri Vikshepe
       Dravyashrita karma.
Syn: Kartavya, Kriya,Praytna, Pravrutti, Cheshta, Chikitsa etc.
Lakshana: Karma resides in Dravya, it is guna rahita and cause for samyoga and Vibhaga.
Types: 2: Laukika, Adhyatmika
Laukika karma: 5: Utkshepana, Apakshepana, Akunchana, Prasarana, Gamana
Adhyatmika karma: Preventive and Curative therapy.
 
  5. Samanya Vigyaniyam
 One which exists commonly in all objects & brings them in to one group under a common name is Samanya.
Lakshana:
1. “ Tulyarthahi Samanyam” - one which says about similarity is samanya
2. “ Sarvada sarva bhavanam samanyam vriddhi karanam” - One which causes increase in padartha is samanya.
3. Having similar chararctristics of a group (Jati samanya)
4. “Samanyam ekatwa karam”- It is cause for increase or vriddhi.
5. Which cause uniformity is samanya.
Types:
Parapara: 3 – Para samanya, apara samanya, Parapara samanya.
Acc. To charaka: (3)-  Dravya samanya, Guna samanya, Karma samanya.
Acc. To Bhattar harichandra: 3: Atyanta samanya (Dravya, guna and karma samanya), Madhya (any 2), Ekadesha (only one).
Others: 2: Ubhayavritti Samanya, Ekavritti samanya.
 
 6. Vishesha Vigyaniyam
 Def:The padartha which tells about the difference between two objects is called Vishesha.
Lakshana:
“Visheshastu Viparyayah” - Vishesha will be different or opposite.
Vishesha is nitya, and exists in nitya dravya by samvaya sambandha
“Visheshastu prithakatwakrit”- Vishesha causes specification.
“ Hrasa heturvisheshascha” - It is the cause for decrease.
Types:
Acc. To Charak: 1. Dravya Vishesha, Guna Vishesha, Karma Vishesha.
 
Chakrapani : “ Pravruttirubhayastu – ubhayasya samanyasya visheshasya”- Bye the use of Samanya and vishesha at a time samana dhatu increases by samany dravya and vishesha dhatu decreases vishista.
 
  7. Samavaya Viyaniyam
 Def: The inseperable relationship between 2 things is known as samavaya.
Lakshana:
1. Where 2 things are in adhara adheya bhava then this kind of relationship is samavaya.
2. The relation ship between Dravya nd its guna and karma is samavaya.
3. The kind of relation between karya and karana is samavaya.
4. Ayuta (inseperable) sambandha between things is samavaya.
 
  8. Abhava Vigyaniyam
 Def: “ Na bhavo abhavah” - Absence of anything is Abhava.
Lakshanas:
1. That which doesnot exist is known as Abhava.
2. That which does not have samavaya sambandha is known as Abhava.
3. Absence of the thing which can be known by pramana is Abhava.
Types: 2: Sansargabhava, Anyonyabhava.
Sansargabhava:  One thing which is present and gives ashray to another thing. The absence of that another thing with respect to that one thing is sansaragabhav and is of 3 types: Pragbhava, Pradhvansabhava, Atyantabhava
Pragbhava: The absence of thing before its creation is known as pragbhava. Its anadi.
Pradhwansabhava: The abscense of a thing after its destruction. It is saadi but anant.
Atyantabhava: The abhava in all 3 kala (forever). It is anadi ananta. 
Anyonyabhava: The absence of a thing in other, where there is no tadatmya sambandha between them. It is anadi and ananta.
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